PHILOSOPHICAL CONCEPTS: A TO Z

An annotated, encyclopedic philosophical dictionary or philosophical lexicon — an endless work-in-progress, forever open to critical examination, revision, and updating.

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Introduction
All human thinking proceeds by means of concepts.

Definitions:

Abstract (used as an adjective):
Abstract (used as an adjective): an entity that’s not uniquely located in space or time, and doesn’t literally belong to any mental or physical causal processes.
Analytic Philosophy
Analytic philosophy: prior to 1950, the tradition of late 19th century and early 20th-century Anglo-European philosophy presents and defines itself as essentially distinct from and opposed to all forms of idealistic philosophy, especially Immanuel Kant’s transcendental idealism...
Anarchism
Anarchism: the political doctrine according to which (i) the State is rationally unjustified and immoral because it inherently involves both (ia) coercion, including violence, to compel people to heed and obey the laws issued by its government, and also (ib) authoritarianism, which says ...
Cognition
Cognition: the human or non-human animal conscious mental representation of something or another; human or non-human animal intentionality.
Continental Philosophy
The term “Continental philosophy” is a catch-all quasi-geographical term, coming into common usage around 1980, for every kind of philosophy that’s excluded or rejected (and often ridiculed) by the post-classical Analytic tradition, typically associated with, for example ...
Dignity
Dignity: the absolute, non-denumerably infinite, intrinsic, and objective value of persons, especially human persons, by virtue of their possessing a unified set of basic innate cognitive, affective (aka caring-oriented, aka emotional), and ...
Distributive Social Justice
Distributive social justice: the set of moral, social-institutional, and/or political principles, processes, and structures that determine the distribution of benefits and burdens in capitalist, liberal, democratic nation-States. (John Rawls)
Epistemology
Epistemology: 1. the theory of knowledge; 2. standardly, narrowly, and inadequately, the theory of the justification of rational human (true) belief and of replies to skepticism about knowledge-claims and/or justification; 3. non-standardly, broadly, and adequately, the theory of human or ...
Free Agency
Free agency: the conjunction of free will and practical agency, which in turn means (i) that you can choose and do what you want to, or refrain from so choosing or doing, without being in any way compelled or prevented by irresistible inner or outer forces (i.e., free will)
Intentionality
Intentionality: 1. the human or non-human animal conscious mental representation of something or another; 2. the “aboutness” of the mental; 3. human or non-human animal cognition; 4. the basic innate capacity or power of an animal subject with other basic innate capacities
Intentional Action
Things that human or non-human animal subjects with capacities for consciousness, emotion, intentionality directedness to targets of all kinds.
Knowledge
Knowledge: sufficiently justified true belief, in the larger context of human or non-human animal cognition or intentionality.
Mind
Mind: (i) the global dynamic intrinsic structure of a suitably complex living organism, i.e., of an animal, (ii) that’s necessarily and completely embodied in that animal, such that mental and ...
Objective (used as an adjective or as an adverb):
Objective (used as an adjective or as an adverb): anything that’s (i) not mind-dependent in any way that inherently deceives human cognition or undermines human cognitive access to manifest reality or truth, (ii) non-idiosyncratic, and ...