SUPERVENIENCE, STRONG: 1. Where A and B are things, facts, events, or properties, B strongly supervenes on A if and only if (i) necessarily A is a sufficient condition for B (upwards necessitation), and (ii) necessarily nothing varies in its B-features without also correspondingly varying in its A-features (necessary covariation), or alternatively: no two things can share all their A-features in common unless they also share all their B features in common, or again alternatively: any two things that are identical with respect to all their A-features must also be identical with respect to all their B-features. 2. Also known as “one-way” or “upwards” strict determination, although strictly speaking, “two-way” or “bilateral” supervenience is also possible (Horgan, 1993; Kim, 1993; Chalmers, 1996: ch. 2).


(Chalmers, 1996). Chalmers, D., The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

(Horgan, 1993). Horgan, T. “From Supervenience to Superdupervenience: Meeting the Demands of a Material World.” Mind 102: 555-586.

(Kim, 1993). Kim, J. Supervenience and Mind. Cambridge MA: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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By means of a synoptic overview of European and Anglo-American philosophy since the 1880s—including accessible, clear, and critical descriptions of the works and influence of, among others, Gottlob Frege, G.E. Moore, Bertrand Russell, Alexius Meinong, Franz Brentano, Edmund Husserl, The Vienna Circle, W.V.O. Quine, Saul Kripke, Wilfrid Sellars, John McDowell, and Robert Brandom, and, particularly, Ludwig Wittgenstein—The Fate of Analysis critically examines and evaluates modern philosophy over the last 140 years.

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