Quantum Theory surfaced out of necessity. Classical models do not begin to explain certain experimental results. The consensus is, Quantum Theory categorizes these results into an overarching Theory. Further physical aspects of the theory were primarily advanced through the work of Niels Bohr.  The first shift from Classical Mechanics re-imagines trajectory as a continuous, analog path to a Quantum path of “indivisible transitions”. Second, a world of statistics and probabilities advance the field of Physics. The final distinction is the wave-particle duality. How can a quanta be wave and a particle? Qualia aside, experience does matter! Confused? Richard Feynman would concur!

Within this chapter, I expand on “indivisible transitions” as well as wave-particle duality. Statistics and probability are central tenets to the philosophy that is p.(x) with commentary throughout this book and it’s companion Literary Fiction title; Will Freeman.

As a philosopher, I am concerned with the efficacy of the duality path, especially with the questions being asked. For me, challenging the fundamentals, re-examining the concept of the point (in Euclidean geometry) is the point! How many unique coordinates are there for each instance of k? Four is the current consensus. This is where the Rayleigh-Jeans law disagrees with experimentation. Matter and radiation are inadequately described with classical physics. Max Planck put forth his best guess on quantization of radiation oscillators (of natural frequency) v, proportionately limiting frequencies to integral multiples of hv. E=nhv is the formula for energy of an oscillator with n being an integer from zero (0) to lemniscate (∞). We all know what zero does to the equation. One (1) is imaginary, where two (2) is where where propagation begins.

For the layperson to contribute to a basic, yet high level, understanding of Quantum Physics, I recommend Fourier analysis. Fourier's equations allow us to describe the discrete (sequential) nature of infinitesimal “indivisible transitions”, verified in experimentation via Lawrence and Beams, and others. Indeed quanta is non-divisible energy.


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