Consumption doesn't have to wreak havoc on planet. These authors left legacies of thought worthy of examination and new authors are climbing the ranks. #Shoulderstanding #Chartres
British Columbia, Canada
Max Planck, The Ship of Theseus, an organic platform for authors, and the soothing consumption of knowledge (like a warm cup of coffee) were all incipit inspirations for the ontology of planksip®.
Pythagoras of Samos was an Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of the Pythagoreanism movement.
Died: September 5, 1914, Villeroy, France
Charles Péguy's two main philosophies were socialism and nationalism, but by 1908 at the latest, after years of uneasy agnosticism, he had become a believing but non-practicing Roman Catholic.
Died: March 26, 1892, Camden, New Jersey, United States
Walter "Walt" Whitman was an American poet, essayist, and journalist. A humanist, he was a part of the transition between transcendentalism and realism, incorporating both views in his works.
Avram Noam Chomsky is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic, and political activist.
Assassinated: January 30, 1948, New Delhi, India
Mahatma Gandhi was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British colonial rule.
Died: July 4, 1934, Sancellemoz
Marie Curie was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize.
Died: June 8, 1889, Dublin, Republic of Ireland
Gerard Manley Hopkins SJ was an English poet and Jesuit priest, whose posthumous fame established him among the leading Victorian poets. Two of his major themes were nature and religion.
January 21, 1950, London, United Kingdom
Eric Arthur Blair, better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist, and critic.
Died: May 22, 1885, Paris, France
Victor Marie Hugo was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement. Hugo is considered to be one of the greatest and best-known French writers.
Died: May 8, 1936, Munich, Germany
Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler was a German historian and philosopher of history whose interests included mathematics, science, and art.
Died: April 15, 1980, Paris, France
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
Died: June 9, 1870, Higham, United Kingdom
Charles Dickens was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian era.
Died: January 4, 1941, Paris, France
Henri-Louis Bergson was a French philosopher, influential especially in the first half of the 20th century and after WWII in continental philosophy.
Died: June 6, 1832, Westminster, United Kingdom
Bentham defined as the "fundamental axiom" of his philosophy the principle that "it is the greatest happiness of the greatest number that is the measure of right and wrong".
Died: January 8, 1642, Arcetri
Galileo Galilei was an Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer, sometimes described as a polymath.
Died: May 6, 1862, Concord, Massachusetts, United States
Henry David Thoreau was an American essayist, poet, and philosopher. As a leading transcendentalist, he is best known for his book Walden, and his essay "Civil Disobedience".
Died: December 21, 1940, Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, United States
Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald, known professionally as F. Scott Fitzgerald, was an American novelist and short story writer, whose works illustrate the Jazz Age.
Clinton Eastwood is an American actor, filmmaker, musician, and political figure. After achieving success in the Western TV series Rawhide, he rose to international fame with his role as the Man ...
Died: March 14, 2018, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Stephen Hawking was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at time of his death.
Died: March 24, 1603, Richmond Palace, Richmond, United Kingdom
Elizabeth I was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the last monarch of the House of Tudor
Died: September 1321, Ravenna, Italy
Dante was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages. His Divine Comedy, originally called Comedìa and later christened Divina by Boccaccio, is widely considered the greatest literary work composed
Died: May 26, 1976, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany
Martin Heidegger was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics.
Died: February 1, 1851, Chester Square, London, United Kingdom
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley was an English novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer, best known for her Gothic novel Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus.
Died: September 13, 1592
Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, Lord of Montaigne was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre.
Died: August 25, 1900, Weimar, Germany
Nietzsche was a German philosopher, cultural critic, poet, philologist, and Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Died: September 21, 1860, Frankfurt, Germany
Arthur Schopenhauer was a German philosopher. He is best known for his 1818 work The World as Will and Representation, wherein he characterizes the phenomenal world as the product of a blind and ...
Died: April 29, 1951, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.
Died: 580 BC, Lesbos, Greece
Sappho was an archaic Greek poet from the island of Lesbos. Sappho is known for her lyric poetry, written to be sung and accompanied by a lyre.
Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin was a German Jewish philosopher, cultural critic and essayist. An eclectic thinker, combining elements of German idealism, Romanticism, Western Marxism, and Jewish..
Died: July 2, 1778, Ermenonville, France
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Francophone Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th century.
Chalfont St Giles, United Kingdom
John Milton was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell.
Woodlawn Cemetery, Elmira, New York, United States
Samuel Langhorne Clemens, better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer.
Died: May 30, 1778, Paris, France
François-Marie Arouet, known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian, and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his...
Died: August 5, 2019, Montefiore Medical Center Moses Division, New York, United States
Luis de Góngora y Argote was a Spanish Baroque lyric poet. Góngora and his lifelong rival, Francisco de Quevedo, are widely considered the most prominent Spanish poets of all time. His style...
Died: March 15, 44 BC, Rome, Italy
Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Died: July 8, 1822, Lerici, Italy
Percy Bysshe Shelley was one of the major English Romantic poets, and is regarded by some as among the finest lyric poets in the English language, and one of the most influential.
Died: April 19, 1824, Missolonghi, Greece
Lord Byron, was a British nobleman, poet, peer, politician, and leading figure in the Romantic movement. He is regarded as one of the greatest British poets and remains widely read and influential.
Died: November 7, 2016, Los Angeles, California, United States
Leonard Cohen singer-songwriter, poet and novelist. His work explored religion, politics, isolation, sexuality and personal relationships.
Died: April 23, 1850, Cumberland, United Kingdom
William Wordsworth was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads.
Died: February 19, 2016, Milan, Italy
Umberto Eco OMRI was an Italian novelist, literary critic, philosopher, semiotician, and university professor.
Died: February 9, 1881, Saint Petersburg, Russia
Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky, sometimes transliterated Dostoevsky, was a Russian novelist, short story writer, essayist, journalist and philosopher.
Died: November 18, 1922, Paris, France
Marcel Proust was a French novelist, critic, and essayist best known for his monumental novel À la recherche du temps perdu, published in seven parts between 1913 and 1927.
Died: August 3, 1964, Milledgeville, Georgia, United States
Mary Flannery O'Connor was an American writer and essayist. She wrote two novels and thirty-two short stories, as well as a number of reviews and commentaries.
Died: January 24, 1965, Kensington, London, United Kingdom
Winston Churchill was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. As Prime Minister, Churchill led Britain to victory in the Second World War.
E. O. Wilson, is an American biologist, researcher, theorist, naturalist and author. His biological specialty is myrmecology, the study of ants, on which he is the world's leading expert.
Died: January 13, 1941, Zürich, Switzerland
James Joyce was an Irish novelist, short story writer, and poet. He contributed to the modernist avant-garde and is regarded as one of the most influential and important authors of the 20th century.
Died: July 31, 2012, Hollywood Hills, Los Angeles, California, United States
Eugene Louis "Gore" Vidal was an American writer and public intellectual known for his patrician manner, epigrammatic wit, and polished style of writing.
Died: March 28, 1941, Lewes, United Kingdom
Adeline Virginia Woolf was an English writer who is considered one of the foremost modernists of the twentieth century and a pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device.
Died: February 12, 1804, Königsberg, Germany
Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy. Kant argued that the human mind creates the structure of human experience, that reason is the source of morality,
Died: July 31, 1784, Paris, France
Denis Diderot was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer. He was a prominent figure during the Enlightenment and is best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the...
Died: October 7, 1849, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Edgar Allan Poe was an American writer, editor, and literary critic. Poe is best known for his poetry and short stories, particularly his tales of mystery and the macabre.
Died: October 20, 1894, Salcombe, United Kingdom
James Anthony Froude was an English historian, novelist, biographer, and editor of Fraser's Magazine.
Died: October 21, 1969, St. Petersburg, Florida, United States
Jack Kerouac was an American novelist and poet. He is considered a literary iconoclast and, alongside William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg, a pioneer of the Beat Generation.
Died: April 17, 2014, Mexico City, Mexico
Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez was a Colombian novelist, short-story writer, screenwriter and journalist, known affectionately as Gabo or Gabito throughout Latin America.
Died: October 6, 1892, Lurgashall, United Kingdom
Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson, FRS was Poet Laureate of Great Britain and Ireland during much of Queen Victoria's reign and remains one of the most popular British poets.
New York, United States
Dylan Marlais Thomas was a Welsh poet and writer whose works include the poems "Do not go gentle into that good night" and "And death shall have no dominion"; the 'play for voices' Under Milk Wood...
Died: September 23, 1939, Hampstead, United Kingdom
Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Died: December 4, 1679, Derbyshire, United Kingdom
Thomas Hobbes, in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Assassinated: December 7, 43 BC, Formia, Italy
Marcus Tullius Cicero was a Roman politician who served as consul in 63 BC. From a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order, considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists.
Died: 479 BC, Lu
Confucius was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
Died: May 30, 1744, Pope's villa
Alexander Pope is best known for his satirical verse, including Essay on Criticism, The Rape of the Lock and The Dunciad, and for his translation of Homer.
Died: Constanța, Romania
Ovid Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus. He was a contemporary of the older Virgil and Horace, with whom he is often ranked as one of the three canonical poets of Latin literature.
Died: 270 BC, Athens, Greece
Epicurus was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded a highly influential school of philosophy now called Epicureanism. He was born on the Greek island of Samos to Athenian parents.
Died: February 23, 1821, Rome, Italy
John Keats was one of the main figures of the second generation of Romantic poets, along with Lord Byron and Percy Bysshe Shelley before his death from tuberculosis at the age of 25.
Died: May 15, 1886, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States
Emily Elizabeth Dickinson was an American poet. Dickinson was born in Amherst, Massachusetts into a prominent family with strong ties to its community.
Died: Athens, Greece
Plato was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens.He is widely considered the pivotal figure in the development of Western philosophy.
Died: 127 AD, Delphi, Greece
Plutarch was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia. Plutarch's surviving works were written in Greek, but intended for both Greek and Roman readers.
Died: July 2, 2016, Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States
Eliezer Wiesel was a writer, professor, political activist, Nobel Laureate, and Holocaust survivor. Night, a work based on his experiences as a prisoner in the Nazi concentration camps.
Paulo Coelho de Souza is a Brazilian lyricist and novelist. He is best known for his novel The Alchemist. In 2014, he uploaded his personal papers online to create a virtual Paulo Coelho Foundation.
Died: December 6, 1882, London, United Kingdom
Anthony Trollope was an English novelist of the Victorian era. He wrote novels on political, social, and gender issues, and other topical matters.
Died: May 2, 1519, Château du Clos Lucé, Amboise, France
Leonardo da Vinci was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance whose areas of interest included invention, drawing, painting, sculpture, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, and more.
Died: October 5, 2011, Palo Alto, California, United States
Steven Paul Jobs was an American business magnate and investor. He was the chairman, chief executive officer, and co-founder of Apple Inc., the chairman and majority shareholder of Pixar.
Died: February 2, 1970, Penrhyndeudraeth, United Kingdom
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist and Nobel laureate.
Died: July 29, 1979, Starnberg, Germany
Herbert Marcuse was a German-American philosopher, sociologist, and political theorist, associated with the Frankfurt School of Critical Theory.
Died: February 19, 1837, Zürich, Switzerland
Georg Büchner was a dramatist and writer of poetry and prose, considered part of the Young Germany movement. He was also a revolutionary, and the brother of physician and philosopher Ludwig Büchner.
Died: February 23, 1855, Göttingen, Germany
Carl Friedrich Gauss was a German mathematician who made significant contributions to many fields, including number theory, algebra, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, ...
Died: October 4, 1947, Göttingen, Germany
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, ForMemRS was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.
Cory Elliot is a Fictional Character in Daniel Sanderson's book Will Freeman, a Literary Fiction designed to act a companion piece to his book on the philosophy of the p.(x) = Big Data Determinism.
Lycomedes of the island of Skyros threw Theseus off a cliff after he had lost popularity in Athens.
Died: October 20, 1984, Tallahassee, Florida, United States
Paul Dirac was a theoretical physicist who is regarded as one of the most significant physicists of the 20th century. I often refer to the Dirac Function in the QFT Horizon Principle.
Died: April 9, 1882, Birchington-on-Sea, United Kingdom
Dante Gabriel Rossetti was a British poet, illustrator, painter and translator, and a member of the Rossetti family. He founded the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in 1848.
Died: February 17, 1600, Campo de' Fiori, Rome, Italy
Giordano Bruno was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and cosmological theorist. His cosmological theories, which conceptually extended the then-novel Copernican model.
Died: August 20, 2001, Bournemouth, United Kingdom
Fred Hoyle an astronomer who rejected the "Big Bang" theory, a term coined by him on BBC radio, and his promotion of panspermia as the origin of life on Earth.
Paul Celan was a Romanian-born German language poet and translator. He became one of the major German-language poets of the post-World War II era.
Vancouver, BC Canada
Died: June 19, 1937, London, United Kingdom
J.M. Barrie was a Scottish novelist and playwright, best remembered today as the creator of Peter Pan.
Died: February 28, 1916, Chelsea, London, United Kingdom
Henry James is regarded as a key transitional figure between literary realism and literary modernism and is considered by many to be among the greatest novelists in the English language.
Died: July 2, 1961, Ketchum, Idaho, United States
Ernest Hemingway's economical and understated style—which he termed the iceberg theory—had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction.
Died: June 28, 1836, Montpelier, Montpelier Station, Virginia, Virginia, United States
James Madison Jr. was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
Died: February 27, 2008, Stamford, Connecticut, United States
William Frank Buckley Jr. was an American conservative author and commentator. He founded National Review magazine in 1955, which had a major impact in stimulating the conservative movement; hosted...
Died: April 17, 1790, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
Benjamin Franklin was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Franklin was a renowned polymath and a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, freemason, postmaster, ...
Died: September 2, 2015
Henry Gleitman was a Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania. Gleitman was born in Leipzig, Germany, receiving his Ph.D. in psychology from Berkeley.
Died: February 16, 1687, London, United Kingdom
Charles Cotton was an English poet and writer, best known for translating the work of Michel de Montaigne from the French and for his contributions to The Compleat Angler.
Died: April 8, 1908, Flatbush, New York City, New York, United States
Langdon Smith was a journalist and author. His most well-known work is the poem "Evolution", which begins with the line "When you were a tadpole and I was a fish".
Died: February 3, 2020, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Francis George Steiner, was a literary critic, essayist, philosopher, novelist, and educator. He wrote extensively about the relationship between language, literature and society.
Died: August 18, 1990, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Burrhus Frederic Skinner, was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher. He retired as a Professor of Psychology at Harvard University in 1974.
Died: August 19, 1662, Paris, France
Blaise Pascal was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic theologian. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father, a tax collector in Rouen.
Died: July 23, 2001, Jackson, Mississippi, United States
Eudora Alice Welty was an American short story writer and novelist who wrote about the American South. Her novel The Optimist's Daughter won the Pulitzer Prize in 1973.
Died: July 6, 1962, Byhalia, Mississippi, United States
William Cuthbert Faulkner was an American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi. Faulkner wrote novels, short stories, a play, poetry, essays, and screenplays.
Died: 1832, Fontainebleau, France
Charles Caleb Colton was an English cleric, writer and collector, well known for his eccentricities. Colton was educated at Eton and King's College, graduating with a B.A. in 1801 and an M.A. in 1804.
Died: Ephesus, Selçuk, Turkey
Heraclitus of Ephesus was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part of the Persian Empire. Little is known about his early life and education.
Died: June 4, 1971, Budapest, Hungary
György Lukács was a Hungarian Marxist philosopher and one of the founders of Western Marxism, an interpretive tradition that departed from the Marxist ideological orthodoxy of the Soviet Union.
Died: April 30, 1945, Berlin, Germany
Adolf Hitler was a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party, Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Died: November 2, 1950, Ayot St Lawrence, United Kingdom
Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic and polemicist whose influence on Western theatre, culture and politics extended from the 1880s to his death and beyond.
Historical Jesus refers to attempts to reconstruct the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth by critical historical methods", in "contrast to Christological definitions of Jesus. But did he exist?
Died: October 28, 1704, High Laver, United Kingdom
John Locke FRS was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
Died: August 26, 1910, Chocorua, New Hampshire, United States
William James was an American philosopher and psychologist who was also trained as a physician. The first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States, James was one of the leading...
Died: 1430, Poissy, France
Christine de Pizan was an Italian French late medieval author. Her most famous literary works are The Book of the City of Ladies and The Treasure of the City of Ladies.
Died: August 5, 1962, Brentwood, Los Angeles, California, United States
Marilyn Monroe was an American actress, model, and singer. Famous for playing comic "blonde bombshell" characters, she became one of the most popular sex symbols of the 1950s and early 1960s.
Died: January 4, 1965, Kensington
Thomas Stearns Eliot was a poet, essayist, publisher, playwright, and literary and social critic.
Died: March 22, 1832, Weimar, Germany
Goethe works include epic and lyric poetry; prose and verse dramas; memoirs; an autobiography; literary and aesthetic criticism; treatises on botany, anatomy, and color; and four novels.
Hartford, Connecticut, United States
Wallace Stevens was an American modernist poet. He was born in Reading, Pennsylvania, educated at Harvard and then New York Law School, and he spent most of his life in the insurance industry.
Died: June 20, 1995, Paris, France
Emil Cioran was a Romanian philosopher and essayist, who published works in both Romanian and French. He frequently engages with issues of suffering, decay, and nihilism.
Dublin, Republic of Ireland
Jonathan Swift was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer, poet and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin.
Died: February 21, 1677, The Hague, Netherlands
Baruch Spinoza was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin. By laying the groundwork for the 18th-century Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism, including conceptions of the self...
Vincent van Gogh was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art. In just over a decade he created about 2,100 artworks.
Died: February 18, 1546, Eisleben, Germany
Martin Luther was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, and monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation. Luther came to reject several teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.
Died: March 4, 1852, Moscow, Russia
Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol was a Russian dramatist of Ukrainian origin. Although Gogol was considered by his contemporaries to be one of the preeminent figures of the natural school of Russian literary
Died: July 1, 1896, Hartford, Connecticut, United States
Harriet Beecher Stowe came from the Beecher family, a famous religious family, and is best known for her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, which depicts the harsh conditions for enslaved African Americans.
Died: October 25, 1400, London, United Kingdom
Geoffrey Chaucer, known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages. He was the first poet to be buried in Poets' Corner of Westminster Abbey
Died: May 8, 1873, Avignon, France
John Stuart Mill was an English philosopher, political economist and civil servant. One of the most influential thinkers in the history of liberalism, he contributed widely to social theory...
Died: May 8, 1880, Canteleu, France
Gustave Flaubert was a French novelist. Highly influential, he has been considered the leading exponent of literary realism in his country.
Homer is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems which are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Died: June 1, 1952, New York City, New York, United States
John Dewey was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.
Died: July 18, 1817, Winchester, United Kingdom
Jane Austen was an English novelist known primarily for her six major novels, which interpret, critique and comment upon the British landed gentry at the end of the 18th century.
Aristotle was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece
Died: June 3, 1924, Kierling, Klosterneuburg, Austria
Franz Kafka was a German-language novelist and short story writer, widely regarded as one of the major figures of 20th-century literature.
Died: August 25, 1776, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
David Hume was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
Died: June 18, 2010, Tías, Spain
José de Sousa Saramago, GColSE, was a Portuguese writer and recipient of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Died: November 14, 1716, Hanover, Germany
Leibniz was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy, having developed calculus independently of Isaac Newton.
Died: March 6, 1866, Cambridge, United Kingdom
William Whewell FRS FGS was an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science. He was Master of Trinity College, Cambridge.
Died: June 10, 2003, Rome, Italy
Bernard Williams, FBA was an English moral philosopher. His publications include Problems of the Self, Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy, Shame and Necessity, and Truth and Truthfulness.
Died: October 17, 1586, Arnhem, Netherlands
Sir Philip Sidney was an English poet, courtier, scholar, and soldier, who is remembered as one of the most prominent figures of the Elizabethan age.
Died: October 18, 1931, West Orange, New Jersey, United States
Thomas Alva Edison was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor.
Died: December 22, 1989, Paris, France
Samuel Barclay Beckett was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, and poet, who lived in Paris for most of his adult life and wrote in both English and French.
Died: January 20, 1900, Brantwood, United Kingdom
John Ruskin was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, as well as an art patron, draughtsman, watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist.
William Maher is an American comedian, political commentator, and television host. He is well known for the HBO political talk show Real Time with Bill Maher and the similar late-night show called ...
Died: December 15, 2011, Houston, Texas, United States
Christopher Eric Hitchens was an Anglo-American author, columnist, essayist, orator, religious and literary critic, social critic, and journalist.
Died: July 17, 1790, Panmure House
Adam Smith was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment.
Died: April 19, 1882, Home of Charles Darwin - Down House, Downe, United Kingdom
Charles Darwin's proposition that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors is now widely accepted, and considered a foundational concept in science.
Died: April 18, 1955, Princeton, New Jersey, United States
Einstein developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics. Einstein's work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science.
Died: February 15, 1988, Los Angeles, California, United States
Richard Feynman was an American theoretical physicist known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the ...
Died: January 4, 1960, Villeblevin, France
Albert Camus was a French philosopher, author, and journalist. His views contributed to the rise of the philosophy known as absurdism.
Died: December 20, 1968, New York City, New York, United States
John Steinbeck was an American author. He won the 1962 Nobel Prize in Literature "for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception".
Died: June 8, 1809, Greenwich Village, New York City, New York, United States
Thomas Paine was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist, and revolutionary.
Died: December 20, 1996, Seattle, Washington, United States
Carl Edward Sagan was an American astronomer, cosmologist, astrophysicist, astrobiologist, author, science popularizer, and science communicator in astronomy and other natural sciences.
Died: August 17, 1786, Potsdam, Germany
Frederick II was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king. His most significant accomplishments during his reign included his military victories, his...
Died: January 2, 2017, Antony, France
John Peter Berger was an English art critic, novelist, painter and poet. His novel G. won the 1972 Booker Prize, and his essay on art criticism, Ways of Seeing, written as an accompaniment to a BBC...
Died: May 11, 2001, Montecito, California, United States
Douglas Noel Adams was an English author, scriptwriter, essayist, humorist, satirist and dramatist. Adams is best known as the author of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.
Died: March 31, 1727, Kensington, London, United Kingdom
Sir Isaac Newton was an English mathematician, astronomer, and physicist who is widely recognized as one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Died: November 23, 1976, Créteil, France
André Malraux was a French novelist, art theorist and Minister of Cultural Affairs. Malraux's novel La Condition Humaine won the Prix Goncourt.
Michelangelo Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.
Died: November 14, 1831, Berlin, Germany
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a German philosopher and an important figure of German idealism. He achieved wide renown in his day and, while primarily influential within the continental tradition
Died: 323 BC, Corinth, Greece
Diogenes was a Greek philosopher and one of the founders of Cynic philosophy. Also known as Diogenes the Cynic, he was born in Sinope, an Ionian colony on the Black Sea, in 412 or 404 B.C.
Died: January 18, 1936, Middlesex Hospital, London
Rudyard Kipling was an English journalist, short-story writer, poet, and novelist. Kipling's works of fiction include The Jungle Book, Kim, and short stories, including "The Man Who Would Be King".
Died: June 7, 1970, Coventry, United Kingdom
Edward Morgan Forster was an English novelist, short story writer, essayist and librettist. Many of his novels examined class difference and hypocrisy in early 20th-century British society, notably...
Died: January 25, 1640, Oxford, United Kingdom
From Oxford University, Robert Burton was best known for the classic The Anatomy of Melancholy. He was also the incumbent of St Thomas the Martyr, Oxford, and of Seagrave in Leicestershire.
Died: December 4, 1131, Nishapur, Iran
Omar Khayyam was born in Nishapur, in northeastern Iran, and spent most of his life near the court of the Karakhanid and Seljuq rulers in the period which witnessed the First Crusade.
Died: June 21, 1527, Florence, Italy
Niccolò Machiavelli was a diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, writer, playwright and poet of the Renaissance period and often been called the father of modern political science.
Died: June 6, 1961, Küsnacht, Switzerland
Carl Jung was a psychiatrist who founded analytical psychology. Jung's work was influential in the fields of psychiatry, anthropology, archaeology, literature, philosophy, and religious studies.
Died: September 9, 1976, Beijing, China
Mao Zedong was a Chinese communist revolutionary and founding father of the People's Republic of China. As the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from 1949 until his death in 1976.
Died: April 9, 1626, Highgate, London, United Kingdom
Francis Bacon was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, and more. After his death, his works remained influential in the development of the scientific method during the scientific revolution.
Died: February 11, 1650, Stockholm, Sweden
René Descartes was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
Died: February 11, 1963, Primrose Hill, London, United Kingdom
Sylvia Plath was a poet, novelist, and short-story writer. She studied at Smith College and Newnham College at the University of Cambridge before receiving acclaim as a poet and writer.
Died: April 14, 1964, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States
Rachel Louise Carson was an American marine biologist, author, and conservationist whose book Silent Spring and other writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement.
ied: November 1, 1972, Venice, Italy
Ezra Pound was an expatriate American poet and critic, and a major figure in the early modernist poetry movement. His contribution to poetry began with his development of Imagism.
Died: November 11, 1855, Copenhagen, Denmark
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.
Died: November 18, 1962, Carlsberg, Copenhagen, Denmark
Niels Henrik David Bohr was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
Died: November 30, 1900, French Third Republic
Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde was an Irish poet and playwright. After writing in different forms throughout the 1880s, he became one of London's most popular playwrights in the early 1890s.
Died: December 22, 1880, Chelsea, London, United Kingdom
Mary Anne Evans, known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist, poet, journalist, translator and one of the leading writers of the Victorian era.
Died: June 8, 1970, Menlo Park, California, United States
Abraham Maslow was psychologist who was best known for creating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, a theory of psychological health predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority.
Died: March 5, 1827, Paris, France
Pierre-Simon Laplace was a French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics and astronomy..
Died: June 6, 2016, County Cork, Ireland
Sir Peter Levin Shaffer, CBE, was an English playwright and screenwriter. He wrote numerous award-winning plays, of which several were adapted into films.
Died: February 14, 1943, Göttingen, Germany
David Hilbert was a German mathematician. He is recognized as one of the most influential and universal mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Died: January 7, 1943, The New Yorker, A Wyndham Hotel, New York, New York, United States
Nikola Tesla was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, and futurist who is best known for his contributions to the design of modern alternating current electricity.
Died: November 9, 1997, Princeton, New Jersey, United States
Carl Gustav "Peter" Hempel was a German writer and philosopher. He was a major figure in logical empiricism, a 20th-century movement in the philosophy of science.
Died: October 9, 2004, Paris, France
Jacques Derrida was an Algerian-born French philosopher best known for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction.
Died: April 21, 2015, Ithaca, New York, United States
Meyer Howard "Mike" Abrams, usually cited as M. H. Abrams, was an American literary critic, known for works on romanticism, in particular his book The Mirror and the Lamp.
Died: July 4, 1848, Paris, France
François-René, vicomte de Chateaubriand, was a French writer, politician, diplomat and historian who founded Romanticism in French literature.
Died: April 23, 1616, Stratford-upon-Avon, United Kingdom
William Shakespeare was an English poet, playwright, and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
Died: August 14, 1841, Göttingen, Germany
Johann Friedrich Herbart was a German philosopher, psychologist and founder of pedagogy as an academic discipline.
The Bronx, New York City, New York, United States
Linda Pastan is an American poet of Jewish background. From 1991–1995 she was Poet Laureate of Maryland.
Died: November 20, 1910, Lev Tolstoy, Russia
Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy, usually referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer who is regarded as one of the greatest authors of all time.
Richard Dawkins is an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and author.
George Walker Bush is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He was also the 46th Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000
Died: July 17, 1912, Paris, France
Jules Henri Poincaré was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science.
Crowborough, United Kingdom
Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, was a British writer best known for his detective fiction featuring the character Sherlock Holmes.
Died: February 19, 1951, Paris, France
André Paul Guillaume Gide was a French author and winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1947 "for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions.
Died: August 31, 1920, Großbothen, Grimma, Germany
Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt was a German physician, physiologist, philosopher, and professor, known today as one of the founding figures of modern psychology.
Died: September 21, 19 BC, Brindisi, Italy
Virgil was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period. He wrote three of the most famous poems in Latin literature: the Eclogues, the Georgics, and the epic Aeneid.
As a field researcher for leading international conservation groups, Eleanor O'Hanlon's articles on wildlife and wilderness have appeared in magazines in Europe and the US.