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My fault, my failure, is not in the passions I have, but in my lack of control of them.
- Jack Kerouac (1922-1969)
Don't Fret the Small Stuff - Harmony is Within Your Grasp - Another planksip Möbius
Förster resonance energy transfer is another (FRET)
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), resonance energy transfer (RET) or electronic energy transfer (EET) is a mechanism describing energy transfer between two light-sensitive molecules (chromophores). A donor chromophore, initially in its electronic excited state, may transfer energy to an acceptor chromophore through nonradiative dipole–dipole coupling. The efficiency of this energy transfer is inversely proportional to the sixth power of the distance between donor and acceptor, making FRET extremely sensitive to small changes in distance.
Measurements of FRET efficiency can be used to determine if two fluorophores are within a certain distance of each other. Such measurements are used as a research tool in fields including biology and chemistry.
FRET is analogous to near-field communication, in that the radius of interaction is much smaller than the wavelength of light emitted. In the near-field region, the excited chromophore emits a virtual photon that is instantly absorbed by a receiving chromophore. These virtual photons are undetectable, since their existence violates the conservation of energy and momentum, and hence FRET is known as a radiationless mechanism. Quantum electrodynamical calculations have been used to determine that radiationless (FRET) and radiative energy transfer are the short- and long-range asymptotes of a single unified mechanism.-
Cheng, Ping-Chin (2006). "The Contrast Formation in Optical Microscopy". In Pawley, James B. Handbook Of Biological Confocal Microscopy (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Springer. pp. 162–206. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-45524-2_8. ISBN 978-0-387-25921-5. ↩︎
Helms, Volkhard (2008). "Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer". Principles of Computational Cell Biology. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. p. 202. ISBN 978-3-527-31555-0. ↩︎
Harris, Daniel C. (2010). "Applications of Spectrophotometry". Quantitative Chemical Analysis (8th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman and Co. pp. 419–44. ISBN 978-1-4292-1815-3. ↩︎
Zheng, Jie (2006). "Spectroscopy-Based Quantitative Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Analysis". In Stockand, James D.; Shapiro, Mark S. Ion Channels: Methods and Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology, Volume 337. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. pp. 65–77. doi:10.1385/1-59745-095-2:65. ISBN 978-1-59745-095-9. ↩︎
Andrews, David L. (1989). "A unified theory of radiative and radiationless molecular energy transfer". Chemical Physics. 135 (2): 195–201. Bibcode:1989CP....135..195A. doi:10.1016/0301-0104(89)87019-3 ↩︎
Andrews, David L; Bradshaw, David S (2004). "Virtual photons, dipole fields and energy transfer: A quantum electrodynamical approach". European Journal of Physics. 25 (6): 845–858. doi:10.1088/0143-0807/25/6/017 ↩︎
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